Michael Horowitz is an assistant professor of political science at the University of Pennsylvania and a non-resident fellow at the Center for a New American Security. He is also an affiliate of the Browne Center for International Politics at the University of Pennsylvania and an associate fellow at the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence. Horowitz works in a variety of research areas, including U.S. defense strategy and defense transformation, U.S. grand strategy, religion and international conflict, and international security in East Asia. Horowitz spent the 2006-2007 academic year as a postdoctoral fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University. He completed his PhD in the Department of Government at Harvard University, where his dissertation examined the diffusion of military power and the consequences for international politics. His other projects include studies of how attributes of international leaders influence their decision-making concerning international conflict, the empirical impact of weapons of mass destruction proliferation on international behavior, North Korean negotiating patterns, and U.S.-Australian relations. Horowitz was the Sidney R. Knafel Fellow at the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs in 2005–2006. During the 2004–2005 academic year, he was a predoctoral fellow at the Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard. He has previously worked at the Long Term Strategy Group, the Science Applications International Corporation, and at the Center for Strategic and International Studies as a research assistant in the International Security Program. He has served as a consultant for the Department of Defense on a range of international security issues. His work has been published in The Journal of Conflict Resolution, The Journal of Strategic Studies, Orbis, and The Washington Quarterly.