Spreading out planes across bases limits vulnerability. But parked planes can be shielded from attacks that evade air defences only in robust buildings that absorb incoming fire, called hardened aircraft shelters (has). Although has do not offer full protection, they reduce damage and make enemies use extra munitions. And the closer air bases with has are to combat zones, the less time protected planes lose in transit. Thomas Shugart of the Centre for a New American Security, a think-tank, has compiled a record of the sites of Asian airports used by air forces, and the number of shelters and runways at each one.
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