The Ethical Autonomy Project: Bibliography

Learn more about the CNAS Ethical Autonomy Project.

Aaronson, Michael. “Killer Robots: Double Standards? Blind Faith?” E-International Relations, June 7, 2013,

Achenbach, Joel. “Here’s the Argument for Banning Killer Robots Before We’re Swarmed by Them.” The Washington Post, August 21, 2015.

Acheson, Ray, “Editorial: A Chance to Put Humanity First,” CCW Report, 2 no. 1 (April 13, 2015),

Acheson, Ray and Richard Moyes, “Editorial: The unbearable meaninglessness of autonomous violence,” Reaching Critical Will, 2 no. 4 (April 16, 2015),

Ackerman, Evan. “We Should Not Ban ‘Killer Robots,’ and Here’s Why.” IEE Spectrum, July 29, 2015.

Adami, Christoph. “Should We Ban Autonomous Killing Robots?” The Huffington Post, September 10, 2015.

Adhikari, Richard. “Beware the Killer Robots.” Tech News World, June 12, 2015,

Agence France-Presse. “Artificial intelligence future wows Davos elite.” Bangkok Post, January 23, 2015.

Aguilar, Mario, “Today's Incredible Robots Are The Killing Machines Of The Future,” Gizmodo Australia, April 17, 2015,

“Africa: Religious Leaders Urge a Ban On Fully Autonomous Weapons,” All Africa, April 2, 2015,

Albanesius, Chloe, “Killer Robots Are Probably a Bad Idea,” PC Magazine, April 13, 2015,,2817,2481295,00.asp.

Allen, Colin and Wendell Wallach. “Framing Robot Arms Control.” Ethics and Information Technology (2013).

Alston, Phil. “Lethal Robotic Technologies: The Implications for Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law.“ Journal of Law, Information, and Science (2012). DOI: 10.5778/JLIS.2011.21.Alston.1.

Altmann, Jurgen. “Preventive Arms Control for Uninhabited Military Vehicles.” In Ethics and Robotics, eds. R. Capurro and M. Nagembourg, 69-82. Heidelberg: AKA Verlag, 2009.

Altmann, Jurgen, Peter Asaro, Noel Sharkey, and Robert Sparrow. “Armed Military Robots: Editorial.” Ethics and Information Technology 15 no. 2 (June 2013), 73-76,,%20Asaro,%20Sharkey,%20Sparrow%20EIT%20AMR.pdf.

“Ambassador Aryasinha inagurated the 2015 Meeting of Experts on LAWS,”, April 17, 2015,

Amnesty International, “UN: Ban killer robots before their use in policing puts lives at risk,” April 16, 2015,

“Amnesty urges UN member states to ban further development of autonomous weapons systems,”, April 20, 2015,

Anderson, Kenneth. “Readings: Autonomous Weapons Systems and Their Regulation.” Lawfare, December 11, 2012.

Anderson, Kenneth. “Readings: Geoffrey Corn on Autonomous Weapons.” Lawfare, August 3, 2013.

Anderson, Kenneth, Daniel Reisner, and Matthew C. Waxman. “Adapting the Law of Armed Conflict to Autonomous Weapon Systems.” International Law Studies, 2014, Forthcoming.

Anderson, Kenneth and Matthew C. Waxman. “Don’t Ban Armed Robots in the U.S.” New Republic, October 17, 2013.

Anderson, Kenneth and Matthew C. Waxman. “Human Rights Watch Report on Killer Robots, and Our Critique.” Lawfare, November 26, 2012.

Anderson, Kenneth and Matthew C. Waxman. “Killer Robots and the Laws of War.” The Wall Street Journal, November 3, 2013.

Anderson, Kenneth and Matthew C. Waxman. “Killer Robots and the Laws of War in Monday’s Wall Street Journal.” Lawfare, November 4, 2013.

Anderson, Kenneth and Matthew C. Waxman. “Law and Ethics for Autonomous Weapons Systems: Why a Ban Won’t Work and How the Laws of War Can.” Columbia Public Law Research Paper 13-351.

Anderson, Kenneth and Matthew C. Waxman. “Law and Ethics for Robot Soldiers.” Policy Review (2012).

Anderson, Kenneth and Matthew C. Waxman. “Similar Ethical Dilemmas for Autonomous Weapon Systems and Autonomous Self-Driving Cars.” Lawfare, November 6, 2015.

Anderson, Kenneth and Matthew C. Waxman. “Tom Malinowski Responds on Autonomous Lethal Systems.” Lawfare, December 5, 2012.

Anderson, Kenneth and Matthew C. Waxman. “Tom Malinowski Responds on Autonomous Lethal Systems: Part II.” Lawfare, December 6, 2012.

“Anonymous Killing by New Technologies? The Soldier between Conscience and Machine.” Ethics and Armed Forces, Issue 2014/1.

Anthony, Ian and Chris Holland. “The Governance of Autonomous Weapons,” SIPRI Yearbook 2014: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, pp. 423-431,

Antebi, Liran. “The UN and Autonomous Weapons Systems: A Missed Opportunity.” Canada Free Press, June 9, 2015.

Arkin, Ronald. “Governing Lethal Behavior: Embedding Ethics in a Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive Robot Architecture.” Georgia Tech Robotics Lab, 2007.

Arkin, Ronald. Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots. Boca Raton: Travis and Francis Group, 2009.

Arkin, Ronald. “Lethal Autonomous Systems and the Plight of the Non-combatant.” AISIB Quarterly, July 2013.$file/Article_Arkin_LAWS.pdf.

Arkin, Ronald. "The Case for Ethical Autonomy in Unmanned Systems", Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 9, Issue 4, pp. 332-341, 2010,

Arkin, Ronald, “Warfighting Robots Could Reduce Civilian Casualties, So Calling for a Ban Now Is Premature.” IEEE Spectrum, August 5, 2015.

Article 36. “AI experts call for autonomous weapons to be banned.”, July 28, 2015,

Article 36. “Autonomous Weapons,”,

Article 36, “Key Areas for Debate on Autonomous Weapons Systems: Memorandum for Delegates at the CCW Meeting of Experts on LAWS,”, May 2014,

Article 36, “Killer Robots: UK Government Policy on Fully Autonomous Weapons,”, April 2013,

Asaro, Peter. “Ban Killer Robots before They Become Weapons of Mass Destruction.” Scientific American, August 7, 2015.

Asaro, Peter. “Campaigning to stop killer robots,” interview with Beverly O’Connor on ABC News, April 14, 2015,

Asaro, Peter. “How Just Could a Robot War Be?” In Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Current Issues in Computing and Philosophy. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: 2008, 50-64.

Asaro, Peter. (2009). “Modeling the Moral User: Designing Ethical Interfaces for Tele-Operation,” IEEE Technology & Society, 28 (1), 20-24,

Asaro, Peter. “On Banning Autonomous Weapon Systems: Human Rights, Automation, and the Dehumanization of Lethal Decision-Making.” Special Issue on New Technologies and Warfare, International Review of the Red Cross, 94 (886), Summer 2012, pp. 687-709,

Asian Tribune. “Sri Lanka on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems.” Asian Tribune, November 14, 2015.

Atherton, Kelsey. “Autonomous Underwater Robots Could Cause Deadly Accidents, Warns UN Think Tank.” Popular Science, September 8, 2015.

Atherton, Kelsey D. “Think Tank Publishes Report on Tanks That Think.” Popular Science, February 13, 2015.

Austen, Ben. “The Terminator Scenario: Are We Giving Our Machines Too Much Power?” Popular Science, January 13, 2011.

The Austrian Delegation to the United Nations, “The concept of ‘meaningful human control,’” paper submitted to the Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems Expert Meeting, Geneva, April 13-17, 2015,$file/Working+Paper+by+Austria.pdf.

Bailey, Ronald. “Bring On the Killer Robots.” Newsweek, February 1, 2015.

Bailey, Ronald. “Let Slip the Robots of War.”, April 2015.

Baraniuk, Chris, “Can we stop killer robots? UN meets to debate possible treaty,” New Scientist, April 13, 2015,

Baraniuk, Chris, “World War R: Rise of the killer robots,” New Scientist, November 17, 2014,

“Battle Robots to Guard Russian Missile Silos by 2020.” The Moscow Times, August 18, 2014.

Baum, Seth. “Stopping killer robots and other future threats.” The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, February 22, 2015.

Bento, Lucas. “Could Science Defeat Terrorism? Using Robots to Hunt Down ISIS.” The Diplomat, August 31, 2015.

Bento, Lucas. “‘Killer Robots’ Need Regulation, Not a Ban.” The Diplomat, February 26, 2015.

Beridze, Irakli and Odhran James McCarthy, “Beyond Asimov’s Laws Of Robotics: Sleepwalking Toward The Future?” Freedom from Fear,

Biggs, Tim. “Artificial intelligence could encourage war, experts fear.” The Sydney Morning Herald, February 11, 2015.

Bishop, Ryan and Jussi Parikka. “Advertisement Autonomous Weapons Exist, But They Aren't Weapons Yet.” Laboratory Equipment, August 7, 2015.

Bolton, Matthew, Thomas Nash, and Richard Moyes. “Ban autonomous armed robots.” Article36, March 5, 2012.

Bolton, Matthew (2013). “Campaign to Stop Killer Robots takes significant step forward at UN.” ICRAC in the Media, International Committee for Robot Arms Control.

Bolton, Matthew (2013). “ICRAC Member and Campaign to Stop Killer Robots Deliver Statements at the UN General Assembly First Committee.” ICRAC in the Media, International Committee for Robot Arms Control.

Bowcott, Owen. “UK Should Campaign for International Ban on Autonomous Killer Drones.”, October 21, 2014,

Bowcott, Owen, “UN urged to ban 'killer robots' before they can be developed,” The Guardian, April 9, 2015,

Brandom, Russell. “The Debate on Lethal Robots is Starting too Late.” The Verge, May 29, 2015.

Brown, Alex. “One Congressman’s Crusade to Save the World From Killer Robots.”, July 17, 2014.

Burke, Cathy, “UN Meeting Focuses on ‘Killer Robots,’ High-Tech Battlefield,” Newsmax, April 14, 2015,

Bradley, Gloria. “Autonomous Weapons will Prove Lethal for Humankind.” NYC Today, October 19, 2015.

Brooks, Rosa. “In Defense of Killer Robots.” Foreign Policy, May 18, 2015.

“Call to boycott killer robots.”, August 21, 2012.

Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, “Artificial intelligence experts call for ban.”, July 28, 2015,

Campaign to Stop Killer Robots,,

Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, “2014: A Year of Progress.” December 23, 2014.

Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, “Congressional Briefing on Killer Robots.” July 17, 2014.

Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, “Missile Systems and Human Control.” November 24, 2014.

Campaign to Stop Killer Robots. “More Talks in 2016 but Little Ambition.” November 13, 2015.

Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, “Nobel Laureates Call for Killer Robots Ban.” June 12, 2014.

Campaign to Stop Killer Robots. “Report on Activities.” June 4, 2015.

Campaign to Stop Killer Robots. “Step up the CCW Mandate.” June 18, 2015.

Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, “UN Disarmament Chief Weighs In.” July 4, 2014.

Canepari, Zachary, Drea Cooper, and Emma Cott, “Navy Robots Test the Limits of Autonomy.” The New York Times, May 6, 2015.

Canning, John. “A Concept of Operations for Armed Autonomous Systems.” Navsea Warfare Centers.,d.cWc.

Carafano, James Jay. “Autonomous Military Technology: Opportunities and Challenges for Policy and Law,” The Heritage Foundation, August 6, 2014,

Caruana, Veronique. “Killer Robots: The Future of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems.” International Law Blog, May 4, 2015,

Carpenter, Charli. “Beware the Killer Robots; Inside the debate over Autonomous Weapons,” Foreign Affairs, July 3, 2013.

Carpenter, Charli. “Who’s Afraid of Killer Robots? (and why).” Monkey Cage blog on, May 30, 2014.

Carpenter, Charli and Lina Shaikhouni. “Don't Fear the Reaper.” Foreign Policy, June 7, 2011.

Cartwright, Jon. “Rise of the Robots and the Future of War.” The Guardian, November 20, 2010.

Castro, Daniel. “‘Ban the Killer Robots’ Movement could Backfire.” Computer World, November 13, 2015.

The Chilean Delegation to the United Nations, “Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems, Human Rights and Ethics,” paper submitted to the Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems Expert Meeting, Geneva, April 13-17, 2015,$file/Chile_LAWS-HR-Ethics.pdf.

Chansoria, Monika. “Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems: Need to Distinguish ‘Lethality’ from Technological Advancement and Progress.” Center for Land Warfare Studies, April 21, 2015,

Chelala, Cesar. “The Perverse Rise of Autonomous Killer Robots.” The Japan Times, October 16, 2015.

Clark, George, “Clark: Killer robots stepping from fantasy to fact,” IFP, April 17, 2015,

Coeckelbergh, Mark. “From Killer Machines to Doctrines and Swarms, or Why Ethics of Military Robotics Is not (Necessarily) About Robots.” Philosophy & Technology 24 no. 3 (2009), 269-278.

Coker, Christopher. “The Coming of ‘Killer Robots.’” E-International Relations, May 16, 2013.

“Concern Grows Over 'Killer Robots' Absent Human Controls – NGOs,” Sputnik International, April 13, 2015,

Corn, Geoffrey S. “Autonomous Weapon Systems: Managing the Inevitability of ‘Taking the Man out of the Loop’.” Social Science Research Network, June 14, 2014.

Crootof, Rebecca. “The Killer Robots Are Here: Legal and Policy Implications,” Cardozo Law Review, 36 (2015, forthcoming),

Crootof, Rebecca. “Why the Prohibition on Permanently Blinding Lasers is Poor Precedent for a Ban on Autonomous Weapon Systems.” Lawfare, November 24, 2015.

The Cuban Delegation to the United Nations, “Cuba’s National Document on Lethal Autonomous Weapons,” paper submitted to the Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems Expert Meeting, Geneva, April 13-17, 2015,$file/Documento+Nacional+de+Cuba+Armas+Aut%C3%B3nomas+GE+2015+Rev+RBV.pdf.

Cumming-Bruce, Nick. “U.N. Expert Calls for Halt in Military Robot Development.” The New York Times, May 30, 2013.

Cummings, M.L. “Creating Moral Buffers in Weapon Control Interface Design.” IEEE Technology and Society, 123 no, 3 (October 2004).

Dahm, Werner, J.A. “Killer Drones Are Science Fiction.” The Wall Street Journal, February, 15, 2012.

Daileda, Colin, “UN Considers Banning Killer Robots,” Mashable, May 13, 2014,

Daily News. “Welcomes Commitment to Seek a Consensus on Lethal Autonomous Weapons.” Daily News, November 23, 2015.

Dall’Agnol, Darlei. “Killer Robots and the Ethics of War in the 21st Century.” Practical Ethics, November 9, 2015.

Datta, Devangshu. “Frankensteins of the Future.” Business Standard, February 5, 2015.

“‘Deadly Drones’ Threat to Humans.” Yahoo! News, May 27, 2015.

DeGeer, Laura, “HRW concerned over accountability for fully autonomous weapons,”, April 10, 2015,

Department of Defense Directive 3000.09: Autonomy in Weapons Systems, November 21, 2012.

Detsch, Jack. “The Rise of Military Robot R&D: A Global Phenomenon.” The Diplomat, May 22, 2015.

Detsch, Jack. “Will DARPA’s Disaster Robots Ever Go to War? Never Say Never.” Defense One, June 8, 2015.

Dickow, Marcel and Hilmar Linnenkamp. “Combat Drones – Killing Drones: A Plea against Flying Robots.” SWP, February 2013.

Docherty, Bonnie. “Taking on ‘Killer Robots’.” Just Security, May 23, 2014.

Docherty, Bonnie. “The Human Rights Implications of “Killer Robots”.” Human Rights Watch, June 10, 2014.

Docherty, Bonnie. “Killer Robots and the Laws of Man: Who’s to Blame for Mission Malfunction?” Helsinki Times, May 29, 2015.

Docherty, Bonnie. “The Trouble with Killer Robots.” Foreign Policy, November 19, 2012.

Dunlap, Charles J., Jr., “Guest Post: To Ban New Weapons or Regulate Their Use?” Just Security, April 3, 2015,

Dvorsky, George. “Leading Experts Sign an Open Letter Calling For a Ban On AI Weapons.” IO9, July 27, 2015.

Dvorsky, George. “Why the Argument Against a Ban on Autonomous Killer Robots Falls Flat.” IO9, July 29, 2015.

Dyer, Gwynne. “Autonomous-weapon Threat Blown out of Proportion.” The Columbus Dispatch, September 12, 2015.

Dyer, Gwynne, “Killer robots coming soon to a war near you,” Winnipeg Free Press, April 16, 2015,

Editorial, “The Guardian view on robots as weapons: the human factor,” The Guardian, April 13, 2015,

Electronics News, “UNSW robotics expert speaks out against autonomous weapons.” Electronic News, October 22, 2015.

Elish, Madeleine and Tim Hwang. “Praise the Machine! Punish the Human! The Contradictory History of Accountability in Automated Aviation.” Intelligence and Autonomy Initiative (Data & Society Research Institute, February 24, 2015).

Elkus, Adam. “Secret Agent Man: How to Think About Autonomy.” War on the Rocks, May 4, 2015.

Epstein, Adam, “These Human Rights Activists Want To Ban ‘Killer Robots,’” Defense One, April 10, 2015,

Eveleth, Rose. “So What Exactly is a ‘Killer Robot’?” The Atlantic, August 20, 2014.

Farnsworth, Tim. “The Time is Now for Countries to Discuss Autonomous Weapons Systems.”, August 13, 2014.

The Financial Times. “A Nightmare the World has No Cause to Invent.” The Financial Times, ###/em

Finley, Klint. “The Autopilot Tech That Could Be a Total Game-Changer for Drones.” WIRED, January 9, 2015.

Foulkes, Imogen, “Briefing: Should ‘killer robots’ be banned?” IRIN, April 14, 2015,

Foust, Josh. “The false fear of autonomous weapons.” Need to Know on PBS, December 20, 2012.

Fowler, Jonathan. “UN talks to tackle potential killer machines.” The Times of Israel, May 13, 2014.

Freedberg, Sydney J., Jr., “Learning from Termites: Navy, Marines Seek New Breed of Drones,” Breaking Defense, April 17, 2015,

The Future of Life Institute. “Autonomous Weapons: an Open Letter from AI & Robotics Researchers.”, July 28, 2015.

Gady, Franz-Stefan, “‘Unmanned 'Killer Robots’: A New Weapon in the U.S. Navy's Future Arsenal?” The Diplomat, April 17, 2015,

Gady, Franz-Stefan, “Super Humans and Killer Robots: How the US Army Envisions Warfare in 2050.” The Diplomat, July 24, 2015.

Galliott, Jai, “Killer robots maybe not such bad news in modern warfare,” The Sydney Morning Herald, April 8, 2015,

Gallibott, Jai. “Why We Should Welcome ‘Killer Robots’, Not Ban Them.” The Conversation, June 30, 2015.

Garcia, Denise. “Battle Bots: How the World Should Prepare Itself for Robotic Warfare.” Foreign Affairs, June 5, 2015.

Garcia, Denise. “The Case Against Killer Robots: Why the United States Should Ban Them.” Foreign Affairs, May 10, 2014.

Garcia, Denise, “Killer Robots: Toward the Loss of Humanity,” Ethics and International Affairs, April 10, 2015,

Garcia, Denise. “Killer Robots: Why the US Should Lead the Ban.” Global Policy, 6:1, February 2015.

GGF 2025 Global Arms Control Working Group. “The Future of Weaponized Unmanned Systems: Challenges and Opportunities.” Global Governance Futures, May 2015.

Gibbs, Samuel. “Musk, Wozniak and Hawking urge ban on warfare AI and autonomous weapons.” The Guardian, July 27, 2015.

Goose, Steve. “Statement To the Convention on Conventional Weapons Informal Meeting of Experts on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems.” Human Rights Watch, May 13, 2014.

Goose, Steve. “The Future of Global Warfare: Killer Robots.” Human Rights Watch, November 20, 2012.

Gould, Joe. “DARPA UAVs Would Be Fast, Light and Fly Themselves.” Defense News, January 2, 2015.

Gray, Jeff, “If a robot kills someone, who is to blame?” The Globe and Mail, April 16, 2015,,

Green, Chris, “Killer robots: No one liable if future machines decide to kill, says Human Rights Watch,” The Independent, April 9, 2015,

Groves, Steven. “The U.S. Should Oppose the U.N.’s Attempt to Ban Autonomous Weapons.” Backgrounder #2996 (The Heritage Foundation, March 5, 2015).

Groves, Steven, “U.N. Conference Debating a Ban on Autonomous Weapons: Understanding Key Issues,” Issue Brief #4385 (The Heritage Foundation, April 16, 2015),

Groves, Steven, “Will the Obama administration agree to ban ‘killer robots’?” Bradenton Herald, April 17, 2015,

Grut, Chantal. “The Challenge of Autonomous Lethal Weapon Systems to International Law” Journal of Conflict and Security Law 18 no. 1 (2013).

Gubrud, Mark. “Is Russia leading the robot arms race? Not really.” 1.0 Human: Mark Gubrud’s Weblog. May 6, 2014.

Gubrud, Mark, “Killer Robots: The Arms Race and the Human Race,” The New Atlantis, April 14, 2015,

Gubrud, Mark, “Semi-autonomous and on their own: Killer robots in Plato’s Cave,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, April 12, 2015,

Gubrud, Mark. “Stopping killer robots.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 70 no. 1 (2014), 32-42.

Gubrud, Mark. “US killer robot policy: Full speed ahead.” Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, September 20, 2013.

Gubrud, Mark and Jurgen Altmann. “Compliance Measures for an Autonomous Weapons Convention.” ICRAC Working Paper Series #2, International Committee for Robot Arms Control, 2013.

Haas, Michael Carl, “Autonomous Weapon Systems: The Military's Smartest Toys?” The National Interest, November 20, 2014,

Hahn, Jason, “UN told to ban killer robots before they become a reality,” Digital Trends, April 12, 2015,

Hall, Alexandra. “5 Weapons That don’t Need a Human to Pull the Trigger.” PBS News Hour, August 6, 2015.

Harris, Kathleen, “‘Killer robots’ pose risks and advantages for military use,” CBC News, April 9, 2015,

Harris, Shane. “Out of the Loop: The Human-free Future of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles,” in Emerging Threats in National Security and Law, edited by Peter Berkowitz, Hoover Institution, 2012.

Havens, John C., “Should we let robots kill on their own?” Mashable, April 12, 2015,

Hawking, Stephen. “Transcending Complacency on Superintelligent Machines,” Huffington Post, April 19, 2014,

Hay, Mark, “Should We Be Afraid of the Rise of Killer Robots?” VICE, April 10, 2015,

Henig, Robin Marantz. “Death by Robot.” The New York Times, January 9, 2015.

Hennigan, W.J. “New Drone Has No Pilot Anywhere, So Who’s Accountable?” Los Angeles Times, January 26, 2012.

Hern, Alex and Julia Powles, “Opposition to autonomous warfare swells to 16,000 signatories.” The Guardian, July 30, 2015.

Heyns, Christof. “Report of the Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, Christof Heyns,” United Nations General Assembly, April 9, 2013,

Heyns, Christof. “Robot wars: after drones, a line we must not cross.”, June 19, 2013.

Hipple, Matthew. “Autonomy Whether You Like it or Not.” War on the Rocks, April 29, 2015.

Holmes, Kim. “We Shouldn’t be so Worried About Killer Robots.” The Daily Signal, May 3, 2015.

“Holy See: risks of robotic weapons with lethal capacity,” Vatican Radio, April 16, 2014,

Hooton, Christopher, “UK government backs international development of 'killer robots' at UN,” The Independent, April 14, 2015,

Horowitz, Michael C., Paul Scharre, and Kelley Sayler. “Autonomous Weapon Systems at the United Nations.” (Center for a New American Security, November 2014).

Horowitz, Michael C. “Coming next in military tech.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 70 no. 1 (2014), 54-62.

Horowitz, Michael and Paul Scharre. “Defining ‘Meaningful Human Control’ Over Autonomous Weapons.” Just Security, March 19, 2015.

Horowitz, Michael C. and Paul Scharre. “Do Killer Robots Save Lives?” Politico Magazine, November 19, 2014.

Horowitz, Michael C. and Paul Scharre. “Meaningful Human Control in Weapon Systems: A Primer.” Working Paper (Center for a New American Security, March 2015).

Horowitz, Michael C., and Paul Scharre. “The Morality of Robotic War.” The New York Times, May 26, 2015,

Human Rights Watch, “Arms: New Campaign to Stop Killer Robots,” April 23, 2013,

Human Rights Watch, “The ‘Killer Robots’ Accountability Gap,” April 9, 2015,

Human Rights Watch, “Ban ‘Killer Robots’ Before It’s Too Late,” November 19, 2012,

Human Rights Watch, “Keep ‘Killer Robots’ Out of Policing,” May 12, 2014,

Human Rights Watch, “Killer Robots,”,

Human Rights Watch, Losing Humanity: The Case Against Killer Robots, 2012,

Human Rights Watch, “Precedent for Preemption: The Ban on Blinding Lasers as a Model for a Killer Robots Prohibition.” Human Rights Watch, November 8, 2015.

Human Rights Watch, “Q&A on Fully Autonomous Weapons,” October 21, 2013,

Human Rights Watch, Review of the 2012 US Policy on Autonomy in Weapons Systems, 2013,

Human Rights Watch, Shaking The Foundations: The Human Rights Implications of Killer Robots, 2014,

Human Rights Watch, “UN: ‘Killer Robots’ on the Run,” May 16, 2014,

Human Rights Watch, “US: Ban Fully Autonomous Weapons,” April 16, 2013,

International Committee for Robot Arms Control,,

International Committee of the Red Cross, “Autonomous Weapon Systems Technical, Military, Legal and Humanitarian Aspects,” November 1, 2014,,

International Committee of the Red Cross, “Autonomous weapon systems: Is it morally acceptable for a machine to make life and death decisions?” April 13, 2015,

International Committee of the Red Cross. “Autonomous Weapons: What Role for Humans?” December 5, 2014.

International Committee of the Red Cross, “New Technologies and IHL,”,

International Committee of the Red Cross, “New Technologies and Warfare,”,

International Committee of the Red Cross. “Report of the ICRC Expert Meeting on ‘Autonomous Weapons Systems: technical, military, legal and humanitarian aspects”, May 9, 2014.

Jacobsen, Annie. “Inside the Pentagon’s Effort to Build a Killer Robot.” Time, October 27, 2015.

The Japanese Delegation to the United Nations, “Japan’s views on issues relating to LAWS,” paper submitted to the Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems Expert Meeting, Geneva, April 13-17, 2015,$file/LAWS(JAPAN'S+POSITION+PAPER+2015).pdf.

Jeffries, Adrianne. “Only five countries want to ban killer robots.”, May 16, 2014.

Jeffries, Adrianne. “Should a Robot Decide When to Kill?”, January 28, 2014.

Jenks, Christopher. “A Kellogg-Briand Pact for the 21st Century.” Small Wars Journal, June 9, 2014.

Johnson, Daniel, “‘Killer Robot’ experts grapple with future face of warfare,” United Nations Radio, April 13, 2015,

Jones, Tony. “Interview: Robotics Professor Noel Sharkey.” Australian Broadcasting Corporation, May 21, 2015,

Just Security, “Editors’ Picks: Autonomous Weapons Systems,”,

Kane, Angela. “Killer Robots and the Rule of Law,” Huffington Post, July 15, 2013,

Kaplan, Jeffery. “Robot Weapons: What’s the Harm?” The New York Times, ###/em

Keller, Bill. “Smart Drones.” The New York Times, March 16, 2013.

Knuckey, Sarah. “Governments Conclude First (Ever) Debate on Autonomous Weapons: What Happened and What’s Next.” Just Security, February 16, 2014.

Koch, Bernhard and Niklas Schörnig. “The Dangers of Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems.” Justitia et Pax, November 22, 2015.

Koplowitz, Howard, “Killer Robots 2015: Fully Autonomous Weapons Too Dangerous To Be Developed, Human Rights Groups Say,” International Business Times, April 10, 2015,

Kott, Alexander, David Alberts, Amy Zalman, Paulo Shakarian, Fernando Maymi, Cliff Wang, Gang Qu, “Visualizing the Tactical Ground Battlefield in the Year 2050: Workshop Report.” U.S. Army Research Lab, June 2015,

Krishnan, Armin, “Autonomous Weapons Systems and the Future of War,”, May 27, 2013,

Krishnan, Armin. Killer Robots: Legality and Ethicality of Autonomous Weapons. London: Ashgate, 2009.

LaBossiere, Mike. “Autonomous Weapons II: Autonomy Can Be Good.” Talking Philosophy, August 28, 2015.

Latiff, Robert and Patrick McCloskey. “With Drone Warfare, America Approaches the Robo-Rubicon.” The Wall Street Journal, March 14, 2013.

Lawand, Kathleen, “A license to kill for autonomous weapons?” interview with the International Committee of the Red Cross, April 17, 2015,

Kumar, Kalyan. “New Generation Submarines Of US To Flaunt Drones And Robots: Russia’s Yasenclass Nuclear Submarines To Carry Hi Tech Decoys.” International Business Times, January 12, 2015.

Leber, Jessica. “This Military Robotics Company Vows to Never Make a Killer Robot.”, October 23, 2014,

Levchenko, Anastasia, “‘Killer Robots’ Decisions Are Unlawful, CCW Conference Speaker States,” Sputnik International, April 18, 2015,

Levchenko, Anastasia, “‘Killer Robots’ May Trigger ‘Accidental’ Skirmishes – NGO,” Sputnik International, April 14, 2015,

Levchenko, Anastasia, “‘Killer Robots’ Unlikely to Pass Humanitarian Law Requirements – HRW,” Sputnik International, April 15, 2014,

Leveringhaus, Alex and Gilles Giacca. “Robo-Wars: The Regulation of Robotic Weapons.” Oxford Martin Policy Paper (2014).

Levinson, Robert. “The Pentagon’s Coming Killer Robot Army: BGOV Executive Outlook.” Bloomberg, June 5, 2015.

Lieblich, Eliav and Eyal Benvenisti, “The Obligation to Exercise Discretion in Warfare: Why Autonomous Weapon Systems are Unlawful,” GlobalTrust Working Paper Series (October 2014),

Lillington, Karlin. “A very serious issue lies behind the ‘killer robots’ mockery.” The Irish Times, July 30 2015.

Lin, Patrick, “Do Killer Robots Violate Human Rights?” The Atlantic, April 20, 2015,

Lin, Patrick, “What Google Cars Can Learn From Killer Robots,”, July 28, 2014,

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