Pyongyang has signaled an increased interest in using renewable energy to address its national energy crisis and economic challenges, which North Korean leader Kim Jong Un blames mostly on U.S. and U.N. sanctions. However, North Korea has only used its nuclear program to develop weapons to date, contributing no resources to generating life-saving electricity through nuclear energy. As a result, it is likely that the success of North Korean renewable energy projects will depend on the willingness of key allies, such as China, to facilitate or assist with its development.
The pursuit of energy-producing alternatives to heavily sanctioned resources, such as coal and oil, has been a central focus of North Korean economic policy under Kim Jong Un since he assumed power in 2012. For example, Pyongyang began to legally regulate the development and use of renewable energy in 2014 through the Renewable Energy Act with the goal of expanding renewable energy generation capabilities to 5 million kW (kilowatts) by 2044. North Korea’s mountainous terrain and strong coastal winds provide an ideal environment for generating wind and solar energy, especially during the harsh winter season when hydro energy-generating dams and rivers are often frozen.
Pyongyang has a history of utilizing its natural resources to compensate for financial difficulties. In 2017, North Korea generated 55 percent of its total electricity from hydroelectric plants and the remaining 45 percent from fossil fuels, signifying a national reliance on renewable energy. However, North Korea still favors coal as a major export commodity and overall energy generator for its economy. Total coal exports plummeted following additional U.N. sanctions in 2016 and China’s decision to reduce coal exports from North Korea in 2017 due to international pressure.
As a result, North Korea will likely invest more capital and resources into developing renewable energy facilities, while still relying on key trading partners like China to keep its economy afloat.
Pyongyang continues to signal significant interest in expanding its renewable energy capabilities. During his 2019 New Year Address, Kim Jong Un announced that greater investment in tidal, wind, and nuclear power can contribute to solving the national power shortage issue and economic challenges posed by sanctions. Since his speech, North Korean state media has published over 280 articles describing national advancements in harnessing natural energy including major universities, such as Kim Il Sung University and Kim Chaek University of Technology, developing solar energy generation systems comprised of domestic materials for industrial use. Additionally, the Arirang Maeri recently announced that the country’s Science and Technology Complex has installed “thousands of solar panels on its roof and along the Taedong River to create a single solar power plant to guarantee power for thousands of computers, network- and communication-related equipment, as well as lighting.” North Korean media outlets have also claimed that the country’s Solar Heating Equipment Distribution Agency plans to develop new technology and products using solar energy across the country, but it is unclear how successful and far-reaching these projects will be given North Korea’s financial limitations.
Read the full article from The Diplomat.
More from CNAS
On LNG, Canada Turned Away Germany, Then Japan—This Country Cannot Keep Doing That
Canada has an opportunity to insist producers invest in the cleanest LNG supplies...
By Rachel Ziemba & Leslie Palti-Guzman
Isn’t That Stuff Just for Criminals?
Host Sheila Warren speaks with two of the foremost experts on cyrptocurrency, Dr. Marcus Pleyer, the former president of the Financial Action Task Force and now the deputy dir...
By Yaya J. Fanusie
Iranian Netizens Promote #Unity to Save Protesters From Execution
Rachel Ziemba, an Adjunct Senior Fellow, of the Energy, Economics, & Security Program discusses why petrochemicals are so important for Iran as the US toughens sanctions o...
By Rachel Ziemba
Bolsonaro Is a ‘Big Headache’ for the Biden Administration, Analyst Says
Rachel Ziemba, Adjunct Senior Fellow at the Center for a New American Security, discusses former Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro's self-exile in Florida. Listen to the fu...
By Rachel Ziemba