February 20, 2020

New York State Minority Veteran Needs Assessment

By Nathalie Grogan, Emma Moore, Brent Peabody, Margaret Seymour and Kayla M. Williams

Introduction and Executive Summary

After 9/11, initial public displays of support for service members coalesced into what has been called a “Sea of Goodwill” consisting of public, private, and nonprofit organizations offering programs and services to military personnel and veterans, their families and caregivers, and survivors. Collaborative efforts have led to tremendous progress in addressing some identified challenges: The number of homeless veterans nationwide has been cut in half, and veteran unemployment has been lower than that of nonveteran peers for nearly two years. At the same time, these gains have not manifested to the same degree across the entire veteran population: Disparities exist between the outcomes of minority veterans and their nonminority veteran peers. This report assesses the extent of those disparities for women; racial/ethnic minority veterans; and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals.

Analyzing the circumstances of minority veterans through focus groups, site visits to veteran-serving organizations, interviews with key stakeholders, and publicly available data, this needs assessment identifies: a) the differences between outcomes for minority versus nonminority veterans, as well as between minority veterans and their minority nonveteran counterparts; b) likely causes for identified variations, and c) recommendations for organizations that serve veterans to enhance equitable outcomes across the population. This needs assessment examines outcomes across four life domains: health, housing stability, financial stability, and social functioning. Supplementing data with the perspectives of minority veterans themselves, along with key stake-holders who support them, provides valuable context for those who wish to better serve this community.

To continue improving outcomes for those who have served the nation, it is imperative to develop a deeper understanding of whether there are specific veteran subpopulations that are faring differently from their peers. By developing a more nuanced understanding of the challenges different groups of veterans face, organizations can better target outreach and interventions to help these underserved populations overcome barriers and thrive.

Among this needs assessment’s most significant findings are the following:

  • Veteran status is largely protective: Veterans of many minority groups have better outcomes across multiple measures than their nonveteran counterparts. However, minority veterans’ outcomes are not on par with those of white cisgender men veterans.
    • For example, black veterans experience unemployment at lower rates than black nonveterans but higher rates than white veterans, and women veterans have higher incomes than women nonveterans but lower incomes than men veterans.
  • There is insufficient data across veteran minority groups and measures to conduct comprehensive analyses, particularly for LGBT veterans overall and for those with multiple minority statuses; more research is needed.
  • Women and LGBT veterans often find the environment at traditional veterans service organizations and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) unwelcoming due to harassment and discrimination; this can cause harm across life domains by reducing access to care, benefits, and social support.
  • Traditional homeless shelters pose barriers to single mothers and LGBT veterans.
  • Health care for Native American veterans is bureaucratically complicated and often difficult to access due to a lack of cultural competency and the significant barriers between Native American institutions and those of the general population.
  • CNAS identified a number of recommendations for those who serve and support veterans to improve research, outreach, and equitable services within the veteran community and beyond.

Several caveats limit this research, including that data specific to religious minorities was unavailable for useful comparisons; and multiple additional factors intersect with the examined categories to impact veteran outcomes, including age and disability status, among others. These limitations suggest additional opportunities for future research and analysis.

This project first provides the framework for this analysis and background on minority veterans and social determinants of health (SDH) to give context for the needs assessment. The second section presents the demographics of minority veterans in New York State specifically, and in the United States as a whole. The third section details the findings about minority sub-populations/ experiences in the four life domains. The final section provides recommendations to researchers, veterans service organizations, and the Department of Veterans Affairs and provides a high-level conclusion about these challenges.

Ultimately, the key takeaway from this research is that veterans are members of American society and are affected by many of the same challenges that their nonveteran peers face. Military service can help overcome many, but not all, structural and institutional barriers that have a disproportionate impact on women and minorities. Understanding the needs of minority veterans will serve all veterans, who will similarly see improvements in services and programs. Those who wish to see equity within the veteran population must acknowledge and confront those issues both within the veteran-serving space and the broader community.

Download the full report.

Download PDF


  • Nathalie Grogan

    Research Assistant, Military, Veterans, and Society Program

    Nathalie Grogan is the Research Assistant for the Military, Veterans and Society Program at the Center for a New American Security (CNAS). Prior to joining CNAS, she interned ...

  • Emma Moore

    Research Associate

    Emma Moore is a Research Associate at the Center for a New American Security (CNAS). Moore is a Non-Resident Fellow at the Brute Krulak Center for Innovation and Creativity at...

  • Brent Peabody

    Former Intern, Military, Veterans, and Society Program

    Brent Peabody is a former Joseph S. Nye, Jr. Intern for the Military, Veterans, and Society Program at the Center for a New American Security (CNAS)....

  • Margaret Seymour

    Adjunct Research Assistant

    Margaret Seymour, with a PhD in International Studies from Old Dominion University, is now studying journalism and strategic communications at the University of Missouri. Her ...

  • Kayla M. Williams

    Former Senior Fellow and Director, Military, Veterans, and Society Program

    Kayla M. Williams is a former Senior Fellow and Director of the Military, Veterans, and Society Program at the Center for a New American Security (CNAS)....

  • Reports
    • September 28, 2021
    The Role of County Veteran Service Officers

    Executive Summary This assessment examines the role of county veteran service officers (CVSOs) throughout the United States. The report highlights the services and support ava...

    By Katherine L. Kuzminski, Nathalie Grogan & Elena LoRusso

  • Video
    • August 16, 2021
    U.S. veterans pained by Afghan collapse

    Adjunct senior fellow Christopher Kolenda joins CNN to share his reaction to the exit of troops from Afghanistan. Watch the full video from CNN....

    By Christopher D. Kolenda

  • Commentary
    • USA Today
    • August 16, 2021
    US waited too long to withdraw from Afghanistan

    There was no good way for the United States to exit the failed war in Afghanistan....

    By Paul Scharre

  • Podcast
    • August 15, 2021
    Afghanistan: How military failures led to Taliban takeover

    Adjunct senior fellow Christopher Kolenda speaks to BBC Newshour about the military failures he has seen that led to a Taliban takeover in Afghanistan. Listen to the full con...

    By Christopher D. Kolenda

View All Reports View All Articles & Multimedia