The Department of Defense (DoD) Transition Assistance Program (TAP) aims to prepare service members for the transition from uniformed service to civilian life. In partnership with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the Department of Labor (DoL), the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM), the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), and the U.S. Department of Education (DoEd), TAP serves approximately 200,000 transitioning service members each year, with an annual budget of at least $100 million.1
The field of research on veteran outcomes associated with participation in TAP is comprehensive, including studies on employment, health, mental health, and educational outcomes.2
However, there is limited research focusing on transition outcomes for specific subpopulations of veterans, including immigrant veterans, Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander veterans; Native American veterans; Black veterans; women veterans; LGBTQ veterans; and Hispanic and Latino veterans—among others. While TAP is designed to be comprehensive, standardized, and broadly applicable, this means that certain subpopulations may have different or more specific needs that are currently unmet by TAP programming. This white paper provides an initial exploration of different transition needs specific to certain veteran subpopulations, and identifies areas where the DoD, VA, local service providers, and employers might consider adjusting their practices to improve transition outcomes among these subpopulations.
While TAP is designed to be comprehensive, standardized, and broadly applicable, this means that certain subpopulations may have different or more specific needs that are currently unmet by TAP programming.
In order to identify potential gaps between the needs of specific veteran subpopulations and the services offered through TAP, this white paper first provides an overview of TAP, including a brief history of the evolution of TAP, an overview of the program’s organization and structure, and a description of TAP components. The white paper then examines the needs of specific veteran subpopulations and identifies gaps between transitioning service member needs and the services TAP provides. The white paper closes with areas for further consideration by stakeholders, including the DoD, VA, and other government agencies, employers, and local veteran service providers.
The Transition Assistance Program
TAP is a multifaceted career transition program—legally mandated by the U.S Code3—that intends to ensure all transitioning service members receive the necessary resources to successfully reintegrate into civilian life and access the benefits and health care they qualify for. Congress initially established TAP in fiscal year 1991 to meet the needs of transitioning service members affected by end strength reductions. The current version of TAP was developed in 2011 and updated in 2019 and focuses on transition assistance for veterans separating from service after more than a decade of continuous conflict.4 TAP was heavily influenced by concerns over post-9/11 veterans experiencing high unemployment outcomes.5 TAP is provided both in person (referred to as “brick-and-mortar TAP”) and virtually,6 which meets the needs of geographically dispersed transitioning service members (such as reserve members).7 Between 2013 and 2017, over 100,000 transitioning service members accessed the TAP curriculum virtually.8
Who Participates in TAP?
As outlined in both statute and policy, each component of service (active duty, National Guard, and Selected Reserve) qualifies for different levels of support during the transition process. All active-duty service members are required to complete TAP and may begin the process one year prior to their termination of service. Separating reserve component service members who have performed 180 days or more of continuous active-duty service are required to attend as part of their separation out-processing. Service members in the National Guard and Title 10 reservists serving in an inactive duty training capacity are eligible for enrollment in TAP at the discretion of their respective unit commander. Service members planning official retirement are required to complete the program’s training and may begin two years prior to their retirement date. Military spouses and dependents of separating service members are eligible to participate in TAP; however, they are assigned the lowest priority and are only allowed to participate if seats are unfilled by service members.
There are exceptions to mandated participation in TAP for active-duty service members. Transitioning service members separating with fewer than 180 days between notification of separation and their final separation date, typically discharged for medical, behavioral, or conduct reasons during initial entry training, are not entitled to access the program. Similarly, those with 180 days of continuous service, but discharged in “other than honorable” status or other punitive conditions may have their participation in the DoD TAP waived by commanders in order to expedite their out-processing from the service.
TAP prepares service members for the transition to aspects of civilian life and veteran status including employment opportunities and enrollment in VA benefits and health care (if eligible). In addition, TAP provides relevant training and resources to individuals interested in education or entrepreneurship. While the DoD and the military departments oversee TAP, the program partners with relevant federal departments and agencies to provide training. Each department’s responsibility is outlined in an interagency memorandum of understanding (MOU).9
Highlights of the responsibilities assigned to each department or agency are listed in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Core Transition Assistance Program Responsibilities by Department
Source: Adapted from the U.S. Department of Defense, Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, Memorandum of Understanding Among the Department of Defense, Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Labor, Department of Education, Department of Homeland Security (United States Coast Guard), United States Small Business Administration, and the United States Office of Personnel Management Regarding the Transition Assistance Program for Separating Service Members, April 25, 2013.
Service members enrolled in TAP must meet career readiness standards (CRS) in order to complete TAP. CRS are defined as “a set of career preparation activities [s]ervice members must complete” that “provide [s]ervice members with a clear, comprehensive set of activities to ensure they have the training and skills needed to successfully transition into civilian life.”10 To meet CRS, participants must:
- Complete a self-assessment/individual transition plan;
- Register for eBenefits, the VA’s online benefits portal;
- Develop a post-separation financial plan;
- Complete an assessment of skills acquired in a service member’s military career with skills required for civilian jobs (referred to in TAP as a “crosswalk”); and
- Receive a counseling session regarding opportunities to transition to the National Guard or Reserves (for active-duty separations).
Service members are provided additional training through tailored tracks based on their individual goals. The tailored tracks include:
- The DoD Education Track: Complete a comparison of higher education institution options.
- The DoL Vocational Track: Complete a comparison of technical training institution options.
- The DoL Employment Track: Complete a résumé or provide verification of employment.
- The SBA Entrepreneurship Track: Complete the Boots to Business course, providing an “overview of business ownership.”11
In addition to the required trainings, TAP participants can attend optional trainings, including trainings specific to disability compensation, VA home loans, and social/emotional reintegration resources. A comprehensive list of the optional courses is provided in Appendix A.
The final TAP requirement, known as the capstone, is an individual counseling session between a TAP participant and a TAP counselor to verify the participant has met all CRS. In order to complete the capstone and gain verification from their commander, the service member also has to provide a résumé, proof of employment, or verification of an educational pursuit following their transition. Service members must also register for eBenefits and complete a post-transition financial plan.12 A gap analysis is conducted, analyzing a service member’s current skills, entitlements, and financial status, and builds a bridge to attainment through constructing a task list. All active-duty service members are required to complete reserve career opportunity counseling from a qualified military career counselor.13 Some career counselors will waive these requirements if asked, except for eBenefit registration and reserve career opportunity counseling.
Whether individuals choose to attend the optional courses or only the required courses, service members invest a substantial amount of time completing the program. A more detailed breakdown of the time requirements for each TAP course is provided in Appendix A.
Variations in Transition Process by Military Experience
Full participation in available TAP modules and capabilities varies depending on service, rank, and job skills. Some service members require less assistance in transitioning to a civilian career since certain military occupation codes have civilian-equivalent credentialing inherent to them. For example, an Army radiology specialist (68P) has civilian credentialing automatically contained in their job responsibilities. Others may have gained applicable skills, but require further certification; for example, military medics require civilian training to obtain the necessary certification to work in the civilian sector as emergency medical technicians. Service members in other types of occupational specialties may not have a civilian corollary to their military career, and thus require new training, credentialing, or educational opportunities.
Some service members require less assistance in transitioning to a civilian career since certain military occupation codes have civilian-equivalent credentialing inherent to them.
The work environment and workload for service members in different career fields can also vary substantially and affect their transition experience. Service members may be limited in their ability to participate in TAP or search for civilian employment depending on their location and the demands of daily operations. For example, an infantry soldier or motor pool technician typically do not spend time in an office and instead conduct their daily tasks outside of a standard work environment, limiting their regular access to computer systems to off-duty hours. Comparatively, a human resources specialist, particularly in a garrison environment, is an office-intensive position that requires daily access to a computer. Office-based roles naturally provide a greater ability to conduct job and transition research during the duty day while on breaks or at lunch, and a human resource specialist would have greater visibility on the administrative rules regarding the transition experience.
Unit leadership responsibilities also play a role in determining the ease with which a service member can take administrative absences to pursue transition services. Those with fewer leadership responsibilities may be afforded more personal time for TAP participation. Those transitioning to civilian life while in leadership positions may find it more difficult to align participation in available services due to the demands of their leadership requirements.
A service member’s transition timeline may also be affected substantially by training or deployments. Though the projected reduction in deployments should decrease demands on time, if a service member has a termination date that aligns with a major training event, such as a rotation to the National Training Center, it will be difficult for the military to provide personal time to complete required or optional TAP services.
There are also key differences in the Expiration of Term of Service (ETS) dates between commissioned officers and non-commissioned enlisted personnel. Officers voluntarily request release from active duty and can therefore request specific dates aligning with the start of a civilian job or the start of an academic semester. Enlisted service members, by contrast, enter into terms of service with each enlistment contract for a specified number of years from their contract date. Therefore, enlisted personnel may be at a disadvantage when trying to align civilian opportunities with their contractually determined transition date. Enlisted service members can request extensions to better align their ETS with transition; however, such opportunities are subject to the availability of their position and approval from the retention officer and commander.
Challenges Facing Specific Transitioning Service Member and Veteran Subpopulations
TAP provides a comprehensive and well-resourced structure intended to ease service members’ transitions from military service to civilian life. Since its creation, the program has maintained bipartisan support in both the legislative and executive branches. The program leverages the strengths of all applicable federal departments by expanding the available resources the DoD and military services can provide to transitioning service members. TAP collects a vast amount of information on individuals’ goals for post-transition plans through the intake forms, the initial counseling session, and the capstone counseling session. While the program is structured and standardized, it also provides the ability to tailor service member experiences based on post-ETS plans (employment, education, or entrepreneurship). However, one unexplored avenue is the way in which veterans from some subpopulations may face additional challenges after transition. Given the strengths of the program and the time transitioning service members invest in completing each of its elements, there may be an opportunity to further leverage TAP to mitigate known challenges. This section explores current challenges facing certain subpopulations of transitioning service members and veterans.
Given more information, TAP career counselors may be able to provide personalized services to certain subpopulations who may face additional challenges with transition outcomes.
The program’s flexible yet standardized approach does not account for individual demographic factors that may affect transition outcomes. Given more information, TAP career counselors may be able to provide personalized services to certain subpopulations who may face additional challenges with transition outcomes. The following section provides an overview of challenges facing specific veteran subpopulations as identified in existing literature, data, and policy reviews. While not an exhaustive list, these subpopulations include immigrant veterans; Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander veterans; Native American veterans; Black veterans; women veterans; LGBTQ veterans; and Hispanic and Latino veterans.
Immigrant service members comprise a small portion of the total active-duty force and approximately 4,500 immigrant service members were naturalized in service in 2020. Between 2016 and 2020, around 30,000 service members were naturalized while in service.14
If immigrant service members face delays in the naturalization process while in service, it may affect their access to VA services and present challenges for future employment.
Since 2002, by executive order and the Immigration and Nationality Act, military service members are given expedited and specialized treatment when pursuing naturalization.15 Some immigrant veterans face challenges completing the citizenship process prior to their ETS date, despite service to the United States. If immigrant service members face delays in the naturalization process while in service, it may affect their access to VA services and present challenges for future employment. The naturalization process can be lengthy and is not guaranteed based solely on military service. TAP does not aid with the naturalization process to transitioning service members. Additionally, one of the major employment benefits of military service, security clearance eligibility, is unobtainable for non-citizen service members. Transitioning immigrant service members who have not completed their naturalization process may therefore be limited with respect to future government employment opportunities, particularly compared to the employment opportunities available to other transitioning servicemembers.
Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Veterans
There are approximately 52,000 Asian American active-duty service members and approximately 8,800 Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) active-duty service members.16 Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander veterans—a diverse population with over 60 subgroups—face a range of challenges with respect to health care, mental health care, and employment outcomes.17
Asian American veterans, when disaggregated from NHPI veterans, are generally younger and earn higher incomes than other subpopulations of veterans. Asian American veterans are more likely to have health care access outside of the VA than other minority groups.18 However, Asian American veterans are more likely to report mental health challenges than other minority groups. As a result, Asian Americans report the highest levels of access to the VA specifically for mental health services.19
NHPI veterans experienced higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder and generally poorer levels of mental health compared to Asian American veterans. NHPI individuals also have lower average incomes and higher rates of unemployment—in 2019, NHPI veterans earned around $27,064 less than their Asian American counterparts and had an unemployment rate that was 2.4 points higher.20
Native American Veterans
Currently, there are approximately 24,000 Native Americans serving in the U.S. military.21 Native Americans serve in the United States military at the highest rate of all races and ethnicities—19 percent of all Native Americans serve in the military, compared to 14 percent of all other races combined.22 However, once they separate from the military, Native American veterans face challenges accessing VA services and benefits. Native American veterans who return to their home of record face particular challenges, as access to education, employment, and health care are less accessible in rural communities generally and on reservations specifically.
Native Americans serve in the United States military at the highest rate of all races and ethnicities.
As a result, the VA finds that Native American veterans are more likely to have lower incomes and educational attainment, higher unemployment rates, and less access to health insurance than their non–Native American peers.23 The VA’s Office of Tribal Government Relations consistently finds that barriers to Native American veterans' access to benefits and services include “remote locations, limited internet connectivity, hesitance to access VA programs and benefits due to a perceived lack of culturally competent services, and mistrust of the federal government.”24
In 2019, Black service members totaled 358,742 in the active-duty force.25 Compared to white veterans, more Black veterans reported their financial and employment transition experiences as difficult and with longer job searches.26 Broader socioeconomic trends within the civilian workforce present a challenge for Black transitioning service members and veterans. Black veterans often return to communities without the resources or networks available in their white peers’ communities, which sets them up for a more challenging transition even while eligible for and benefiting from the same veteran benefits.27 Unemployment data from September 2020 indicate that Black or African American veterans had an unemployment rate of 7.8 percent as compared to the white, Anglo, or Caucasian unemployment rate of 6.2 percent.28
Women veterans represent the fastest-growing veteran population. Approximately 225,000 women currently serve on active duty across the services, and there are currently two million women veterans in the United States—approximately 10 percent of the current veteran population.29 While women represented only 4 percent of veterans in 2000, they are projected to represent 18 percent of veterans by 2040.30 As both a growing population and a minority population, women veterans face specific challenges when transitioning from military service. Women veterans are more likely than their male counterparts to report financial difficulties when transitioning from service to civilian life (67 percent, as compared to 47 percent).31 Women veterans also report feeling a lack of community after transition and are at greater risk of feeling isolated after leaving service than men.32 Women veterans are more likely than men to be single parents and therefore may face more challenges accessing family services (such as access to childcare or housing).33 Compared to men, women veterans report lower levels of trust in the VA for health care, creating barriers for access to health care and mental health care.34
As of 2015, 6.1 percent of active-duty service members identify as LGBT.35
LGBT veterans are more likely to have experienced military sexual assault while in service,36
leading to negative health outcomes which are exacerbated by a subsequent lack of trust in the VA medical system. Transgender veterans are three times more likely to experience unemployment following transition from the military than cisgender peers, and 29 percent of transgender veterans live in poverty.37
While not unique to the veteran community, LGBT veterans who live in the 13 states that lack state-level legislation prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and identity are at greater risk for both employment discrimination and unemployment.38
Hispanic and Latino Veterans
There are approximately 329,000 Hispanic or Latino veterans serving on active duty.39
Hispanic veterans make up 7 percent of the total veteran population of the United States, or 1.3 million people. For this subpopulation, the top reason for leaving the military is to pursue further education. The top five challenges of transition include securing employment, coordinating various VA entitlements, financial struggles, and translating skills learned in the military to the civilian world. According to Syracuse University’s Institute for Veterans and Military Families, the transition experiences of Hispanic veterans in employment and financial stability were 13 percent more challenging than white veterans. Compared to Hispanic non-veterans, Hispanic veterans experienced lower employment rates and earned higher wages. Yet compared to non-Hispanic veterans, Hispanic veterans experienced higher unemployment rates and earned lower average wages.40
Areas for Further Consideration
Since 2001, the DoD, VA, DoL, DoEd, SBA, OPM, and local veteran service providers and employers have all made significant strides in assisting service members during their transition from active-duty service to civilian life. However, most approaches to veteran transition do not account for the specific challenges facing the veteran subpopulations addressed in this white paper.
TAP has demonstrated its ability to structurally adapt to meet the needs of specific veteran subpopulations in the past, as evidenced by the addition of the Women's Health Transition Training. Given the depth and breadth of information collected through counseling sessions and TAP documentation regarding post-transition goals—ranging from employment opportunities to relocation plans, family needs, and even potentially citizenship status—there is an opportunity for counselors and TAP service providers to identify risk factors for challenging transitions. By identifying these risk factors, TAP service providers may be able to better guide transitioning service members toward existing resources that may meet their needs. Alternatively, TAP may consider providing new services tailored to the specific needs of subpopulations.
The following areas for further consideration may provide avenues to improve transition outcomes for these veterans.
For the DoD, the Services, and the Transition Assistance Program
Create a tailored approach to TAP. While the standardized approach to TAP is intended to ensure that all transitioning service members receive equal access to support, one size does not fit all. A tailored transition approach requires flexibility and imagination across the various touchpoints for separating service members. Targeted transition support for different Military Occupational Specialties, interests, and skills would set up the post-service employment landscape in a more realistic way.
Develop a standardized transition form for veterans to fill out that goes to TAP counselors, state veterans’ offices, and employers for a baseline of assistance. TAP resources often sit in one place regardless of where the veteran chooses to relocate after separating. Providing new locations with information on the veterans’ transition process and skills would be beneficial to both the veteran, their family, and the chosen locale.
Mandate that the transition process starts earlier than 90 days prior to termination of service. An individual transition plan should be targeted to the transitioning service member and would significantly benefit from a longer runway to the civilian world.
Consider making TAP regionally focused or leveraging local DoL centers in the service member’s desired post-service residential location. Veterans either remain in their last duty station, return home, or relocate to a new geographic location. States, cities, counties, and communities across the country have varied economic cultures, opportunities, educational institutions, and challenges. Focusing TAP on where the veteran will be living and seeking employment (rather than the location from which they are separating) may allow for a more relevant transition process.
Consider expanding the transition-related support for military spouses and military children. Just as the whole family serves, the whole family experiences the transition. Military spouses and military children face a new reality upon the service member’s separation, and TAP may be in a position to offer awareness and support for both spousal career opportunities and children’s educational options.
Appendix A: Detailed Description of the Transition Assistance Program
The following provides a more detailed description of the TAP process, mandatory TAP courses, and optional TAP courses.
To initiate the TAP process, a service member must log into the MilConnect website to initialize a digitally managed Department of Defense Form 2648 (DD 2648), “Service Member Pre-Separation/Transition Counseling and Career Readiness Standards EFORM for Service Members Separating, Retiring, Released from Active Duty (REFRAD).”41 The form is an active document that is updated as the service member completes required tasks in the DoD TAP process. While the service member is enrolled in TAP, the service member, DoD TAP personnel, and the individual service member’s commander track their progress toward completion. Though the bulk of the DoD TAP process is driven by the individual and managed by the DoD TAP career counselor, the individual’s commander is required to verify that the service member completed all legally required program elements.
Following the initiation of the DD Form 2648, the service member is eligible to begin the process of mandatory portions of TAP and their individual transition plan at least 90 days prior to the termination of service.42
Initiated by either a face-to-face or telephone interview with a career counselor, the service member is provided all required material to complete TAP. The service member will complete an individual transition plan outlining their intended goals following their ETS date and TAP counselors will assist the service member in tailoring their TAP plan to meet their preferred outcome. At a minimum, service members are required to participate in five modules, all of which provide a certificate of completion. The 14 hours of instruction can be completed at brick-and-mortar TAP sites or through timed online courses. The individual courses and associated time requirements are outlined in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Required TAP Courses
In conjunction with the individual transition plan, the career counselor will provide a list of recommended modules available to further describe benefits. For example, service members seeking to pursue further education can complete a one-hour module on VA education benefits, while those seeking employment can complete an employment workshop. In total, an additional 40 hours of transition instruction is available from the TAP, outlined in Figure 3.
Figure 3: Optional TAP Courses
Nathalie Grogan is the research assistant for the Military, Veterans, and Society Program at CNAS. Grogan holds a master of public policy degree from George Washington University, specializing in foreign, defense, and security policy. She earned her BA in history and French from the State University of New York at Geneseo and studied at the Université Paul-Valery 3 in Montpellier, France.
Elena LoRusso was a Joseph S. Nye, Jr. intern for the Military, Veterans, and Society Program at CNAS. Prior to joining CNAS, LoRusso worked with the Army Community Service’s Employment Readiness Program at Fort Drum, NY, as a career coach for soldiers, DoD civilian employees, and their family members. She completed a year of community service as an AmeriCorps VISTA. LoRusso graduated with a master’s from Cornell University’s Industrial and Labor Relations School. She earned her BA in public policy studies from DePaul University.
Katherine Kuzminski (formerly Kidder) is the senior fellow and director of the Military, Veterans, and Society Program at CNAS. Kuzminski returns to CNAS from the RAND Corporation, where she was a political scientist researching military personnel policy. She is completing her PhD in security studies from Kansas State University, where she earned her BS in military history and an MA in security studies.
Jon Tishman is a recently separated U.S. Army captain. During his first term of service, Tishman served as an infantry officer on three combat deployments with conventional and special operations units. After a break in service working in Australia and New York, Tishman returned to active duty, deploying again to Afghanistan as a commander. He holds a BA in psychology and an MS in international relations.
About the Military, Veterans, and Society Program
The Military, Veterans, and Society program addresses issues facing America’s service members, veterans, and military families, including the future of the All-Volunteer Force, trends within the veteran community, and civil-military relations. The program produces high-impact research that informs and inspires strategic action; convenes stakeholders and hosts top-quality events to shape the national conversation; and engages policymakers, industry leaders, Congress, scholars, the media, and the public about issues facing veterans and the military community.
The authors would like to thank the many individuals and organizations that have contributed to and inspired the development of this research. In addition, the authors extend their gratitude to Amy Schafer for her time reviewing the report. Finally, the authors express their sincere appreciation to CNAS colleagues Melody Cook, Emma Swislow, and Maura McCarthy for their time and attention in supporting the work.
This working paper was made possible with support from Comcast NBCUniversal. The views presented here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of Comcast or its directors, officers, and staff.
- U.S. Department of Defense Transition Assistance Program, Partnering Agencies, https://www.dodtap.mil/partners.html; U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Transition and Economic Development, https://www.benefits.va.gov/transition/tap.asp#:~:text=About%20200%2C000%20service%20members%20transition,from%20military%20to%20civilian%20life; Kristy N. Kamarck, Military Transition Assistance Program (TAP): An Overview, CRS 7-5700, Congressional Research Service, July 12, 2018, https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/IF10347.pdf. ↩
- Judson Faurer, Apryl Rogers-Brodersen, and Paul Bailie, “Managing the Re-Employment of Military Veterans Through the Transition Assistance Program (TAP),” Journal of Business & Economics Research, 12, no. 1 (2014); and Catherine Ziencik, “Transitioning from the Military to Higher Education: A Case Study of the Transition Assistance Program,” Journal of Veterans Studies, 6, no. 2 (2020). ↩
- 10 U.S.C. § 1144, “Employment assistance, job training assistance, and other transitional services: Department of Labor.” ↩
- Public Law 101-510, “National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991”; Kamarck, Military Transition Assistance Program (TAP): An Overview. ↩
- Veterans Employment Initiative Task Force, “Transition Assistance Program improvements ease path from Servicemember to Veteran,” VAntage Point (blog) on U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, November 21, 2016, https://blogs.va.gov/VAntage/32897/five-years-obama-administration-highlights-improvements-transition-assistance-program/. ↩
- U.S. Department of Labor, Veterans Employment and Training Service. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/vets/programs/tap. ↩
- U.S. Department of Defense, DoD TAP Transition Assistance Program Virtual Curriculum, https://www.dodtap.mil/virtual_curriculum.html. ↩
- Kamarck, Military Transition Assistance Program (TAP): An Overview. ↩
- U.S. Department of Defense, Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, Memorandum of Understanding Among the Department of Defense, Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Labor, Department of Education, Department of Homeland Security (United States Coast Guard, United States Small Business Administration, and the United States Office of Personnel Management Regarding the Transition Assistance Program for Separating Service Members, April 25, 2013, https://prhome.defense.gov/Portals/52/Documents/RFM/TVPO/files/TAP_MOU.pdf. ↩
- U.S. Department of Defense Transition Assistance Program, Career Readiness Standards (CRS), https://www.dodtap.mil/career_readiness_standards.html. ↩
- U.S. Small Business Administration, Boots to Business, https://www.sba.gov/sba-learning-platform/boots-business. ↩
- U.S. Department of Defense and U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, eBenefits, https://www.ebenefits.va.gov/ebenefits/homepage. ↩
- U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, DoD Instruction 1332.35: Transition Assistance Program (TAP) for Military Personnel, 2019. ↩
- U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Military Naturalization Statistics, https://www.uscis.gov/military/military-naturalization-statistics. ↩
- “Expedited Citizenship for U.S. Armed Forces,” Citizen Path, https://citizenpath.com/expedited-citizenship-military-personnel/. ↩
- U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Center for Minority Veterans, Asian American and Pacific Islander Fact Sheet, https://www.va.gov/centerforminorityveterans/docs/factSheetAanhpiOnePage.pdf. ↩
- Note: Many departments and agencies across the federal government combine members of the Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander community in employment, health care, education, and social service data, masking a difference in outcomes for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander veterans. See Naomi Ishisaka, “Why it’s time to retire the term ‘Asian Pacific Islander’,” Seattle Times, November 30, 2020, https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/why-its-time-to-retire-the-term-asian-pacific-islander/. ↩
- Jack Tsai, Julia Whealin, and Robert Pietrzak, “Asian American and Pacific Islander Military Veterans in the United States: Health Service Use and Perceived Barriers to Mental Health Services,” American Journal of Public Health, 104 no. S4, (2014) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4151899/pdf/AJPH.2014.302124.pdf. ↩
- Tsai, Whealin, and Pietrzak, “Asian American and Pacific Islander Military Veterans in the United States: Health Service Use and Perceived Barriers to Mental Health Services.” ↩
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health, Minority Population Profiles, https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=2&lvlID=26. ↩
- “American Indian Veterans Have Highest Record of Military Service,” National Indian Council on Aging, November 8, 2019, https://www.nicoa.org/american-indian-veterans-have-highest-record-of-military-service/. ↩
- J.D. Simkins, “A ‘Warrior Tradition’: Why Native Americans continue fighting for the same government that tried to wipe them out,” Military Times, November 15, 2019, https://www.militarytimes.com/off-duty/military-culture/2019/11/15/a-warrior-tradition-why-native-americans-continue-fighting-for-the-same-government-that-tried-to-wipe-them-out/. ↩
- U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of Tribal Government Relations, 2012 Tribal Consultation Report: Lincoln, Nebraska and Denver, Colorado (2012), 1. ↩
- U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of Tribal Government Relations, 2018 Summary Report on VA Claims Events in Indian Country: A Guide for Best Practice (2018), 1, https://www.va.gov/tribalgovernment/docs/2018_Executive_Summary_508.pdf. ↩
- U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretay of Defense for Military Community and Family Policy, 2019 Demographics: Profile of the Military Community, (2019), https://download.militaryonesource.mil/12038/MOS/Reports/2019-demographics-report.pdf. ↩
- R.V. Maury, et al., “Black and African Americans in the Military: From Service to Civilian Life,” Syracuse University’s Institute for Veterans and Military Families, February 2020, https://ivmf.syracuse.edu/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/2021_BlackHistoryMonth_1.27.21_P3.pdf. ↩
- Michel Martin, “Civilian Life Transition Harder for African-American Vets?” NPR, May 27, 2013, https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=186479854. ↩
- “The Unemployment Situation of Veterans,” Syracuse University’s Institute for Veterans and Military Families, September 2020, https://ivmf.syracuse.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/IVMF-Employment-Situation-of-Veterans-September-2020-Released-October-2-2020.pdf. ↩
- U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Women Veterans Health Care: Facts and Statistics about Women Veterans, https://www.womenshealth.va.gov/womenshealth/latestinformation/facts.asp. ↩
- U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Women Veterans Today, https://www.womenshealth.va.gov/WOMENSHEALTH/docs/WomenVeteransFactSheet101216_508.pdf. ↩
- Apoorva Mittal, “Why leaving the military is harder for female vets,” Military Times, July 18, 2019, https://www.militarytimes.com/education-transition/2019/07/18/why-leaving-the-military-is-harder-for-female-vets/. ↩
- “Women Warriors Initiative Report,” (Wounded Warrior Project, 2021), 10, https://www.woundedwarriorproject.org/media/tt0ftq4a/wwp-women-warriors-initiative-report-2021.pdf. ↩
- Kristina Keenan, Associate Director of Veterans of Foreign Wars, “Cultural Barriers Impacting Women’s Access to Healthcare,” statement to the Subcommittee on Health, Committee on Veterans Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, May 2, 2019, https://www.vfw.org/advocacy/national-legislative-service/congressional-testimony/2019/5/cultural-barriers-impacting-women-veterans-access-to-healthcare. ↩
- Tim Hudak, “VA making extra effort to connect with women veterans,” VAntage Point (blog) on U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, January 19, 2021, https://blogs.va.gov/VAntage/83705/earning-trust-women-veterans-honoring-feedback/. ↩
- Sarah O. Meadows, et al., “2015 Health Related Behaviors Survey: Sexual Orientation, Transgender Identity, and Health Among U.S. Active-Duty Service Members,” (RAND Corporation, 2018), https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB9955z6.html. ↩
- U.S. Department of Defense, Independent Review Commission on Sexual Assault in the Military, Hard Truths and the Duty to Change: Recommendations from the Independent Review Commission on Sexual Assault in the Military, July 2, 2021, https://media.defense.gov/2021/Jul/02/2002755437/-1/-1/0/IRC-FULL-REPORT-FINAL-1923-7-1-21.PDF/IRC-FULL-REPORT-FINAL-1923-7-1-21.PDF. ↩
- Nathalie Grogan, Emma Moore, Brent Peabody, Margaret Seymour, and Kayla Williams, “New York State Minority Veteran Needs Assessment,” (Center for a New American Security, February 2020), https://www.cnas.org/publications/reports/new-york-state-minority-veteran-needs-assessment. ↩
- The 13 states are: Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wyoming. See “State Equality Index 2020,” Human Rights Campaign, https://www.hrc.org/resources/state-equality-index. ↩
- U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretay of Defense for Military Community and Family Policy, 2019 Demographics: Profile of the Military Community, 8. ↩
- R.V. Maury, et al., “Hispanics and Latinos in the Military: From Service to Civilian Life, “ Syracuse University’s Institue for Veterans and Military Families, September 2020, https://ivmf.syracuse.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/IVMF-Hispanics-and-Latinos-in-the-Military-Infographic-Sept-2020.pdf. ↩
- U.S. Department of Defense, DD Form 2648: Service Member Pre-Separation/Transition Counseling and Career Readiness Standards E-Form For Service Members Separating, Retiring, Released from Active Duty (REFRAD), October 2019, https://www.dodtap.mil/rest/docs?filename=Blank_eForm_PDF_Print_Out.pdf. ↩
- U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, DoD Instruction 1332.35: Transition Assistance Program (TAP) for Military Personnel, 2019, 39–40. ↩
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